Main interests include the analysis of ideology, 19th-21st Century British political thought, modern liberal theory, welfare state theory, methodologies in political theory, the comparative study of political thought.
Publications include: The New Liberalism (1978), Liberalism Divided (1986), Reappraising J. A. Hobson: Humanism and Welfare (1990), Rights (1991), Ideologies and Political Theory: A Conceptual Approach (1996), Reassessing Political Ideologies (2001), Ideology: A Very Short Introduction (2003), Liberal Languages: Ideological Imaginations and Twentieth-Century Progressive Thought (2005); various articles in journals of politics, philosophy and history. Director of the Centre for Political Ideologies. Currently working on an ESRC funded research project entitled â€˜The political theory of political thinking'.